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American Fitness Academy Curriculum

Certifications Received: Upon completion of the course, participants will receive AFA certifications in Personal Training, Sports Nutrition, and CPR.

Basic Course Outline

I. Applied Sciences


A. Exercise Physiology

B. Kinesiology and Applied Biomechanics

C. Anatomy

D. Motor Learning/Control

E. Biochemistry

F. Nutrition

G. Weight Management

H. Stress Management

I. Basic Behavior Sciences

II. Client Assessment

A. Obtain health/medical information

B. Assess client expectations, preferences, motivation, and readiness biomechanics

C. Obtain a detailed lifestyle and exercise history

D. Motor learning/control

E. Nutrition and health eating measures

F. Substance use and abuse

G. Weight management H. Stress management

III. Program Design

A. Interpret the results of client assessment

B. Establish client-specific goals and objective measures

C. Determine appropriate fitness procedure

D. Address health-risk factors

IV. Program Implementation and Adjustment

A. Teach safe and effective exercise technique

B. Teach strategies that promote physical activity

C. Make appropriate modifications

D. Promote exercise adherence

V. Professional Role

A. Emergency policy; plan, and procedure

B. Scope of practice

C. Legal responsibilities D. Ethical responsibilities E. Documentation

Expanded Exam and Course Coverage:


Domain I: APPLIED SCIENCES

Topic A: Exercise Physiology


Knowledge of:

1. Cardio respiratory physiology. (Exercise Physiology)

2. Metabolism. (Exercise Physiology)

3. Neuromuscular physiology (Exercise Physiology)

4. Temperature regulation (Exercise Physiology)

5. Endocrine/hormonal responses (Exercise Physiology)

Topic B: Kinesiology and Applied Biomechanics

Knowledge of:

1. Musculoskeletal system, (Biomechanics and Applied Kinesiology)

2. Principles of biomechanics and physics (Biomechanics and Applied Kinesiology)

Topic C: Anatomy

Knowledge of:

1. Muscular System (Human Anatomy)

2. Skeletal System (Human Anatomy)

3. Cardiovascular System (Exercise Physiology & Human Anatomy)

4. Pulmonary System (Human Anatomy)

5. Central Nervous System (Human Anatomy)

6. Neuromuscular System (Human Anatomy)

Topic D: Motor Learning/Control

Knowledge of:

1. Stages of Learning (Basics of Behavior Change and Health Psychology)

2. Principles of control (e.g. speed, accuracy) (Basics of Behavior Change and Health Psychology)

3. Feedback content, type and scheduling (results) (Basics of Behavior Change and Health Psychology

4. Demonstration, instruction and technique. (Basics of Behavior Change and Health Psychology)

5. Basic reflexes. (Basics of Behavior Change and Health Psychology)

Topic E: Nutrition and Health Eating

Knowledge of:

1. Principles of nutrition (macro- and micronutrients). (Health Screening)

2. Public health guidelines and healthy eating (Health Screening)

3. Supplements and vitamins (Health Screening)

Topic F: Weight Management

Knowledge of:

1. Guidelines on safe and effective weight loss methods.

2. Body weight and body composition

3. Role of exercise and nutrition in weight management

4. Warning signs for disordered eating patterns and behaviors and appropriate referrals.

Topic G: Stress Management

Knowledge of:

1. Theories of stress responses

2. Techniques (e.g. relaxation, visualization, cognitive restructuring.)

3. Role of exercise and nutrition in stress management

Topic H: Basic Behavioral Sciences

Knowledge of:

1. Motivation theory

2. Methods to enhance exercise adherence

3. Principles of effective goal setting

4. Principles of social learning theory

5. Counseling, coaching, and communication strategies.

Skill in:

1. Identifying non-verbal behavior and cues in clients and trainers.

2. Processing and analyzing communication patterns in clients.

DOMAIN II: CLIENT ASSESSMENT

Task A: Obtain health/medical information using questionnaires, interviews, and other available records in order to determine appropriateness for exercise, identify the need for medical cleara nce and other referrals, and aid program design.


Knowledge of:

1. Health conditions and risk factors that may interfere with the ability to safely participate in assessment (e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, orthopedic considerations, pregnancy)

2. Testing and Evaluation

3. Accepted Guidelines, their role in determining the need for referral, and their application for test administration

4. Participation in physical activity (e.g. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

5. Components of a health history form that adequately documents the client’s health status (e.g. demographics information, health risk factors, medication, illness, surgery and injury history, family history) (Testing and Evaluation)

6. Cardiovascular and musculoskeletal risk factors and their significance to referral and the appropriate application

7. Recognition of, and appropriate precaution to take with, a client taking medications and other substances (e.g. beta blockers, diuretics, antihistamines, tranquilizers, alcohol, diet pill, cold medications, caffeine, nicotine, anyihypertensives)

Skill in:

1. Evaluating health appraisal instruments (Testing and Evaluation)

2. Interpreting health risk appraisal results (Testing and Evaluation)

Task B: Assess client expectations, preferences, motivation, and readiness using questionnaires and interviews in order to aid in establishing a safe and effective exercise program and to promote short and long-term adherence.

Knowledge of:

1. Methods to assess motivation, readiness, and expectations (e.g. standardized assessment instruments, interviews) Communication and Teaching Techniques & Cardio Respiratory Fitness and Exercise)

Skill in:

1. Evaluating and selecting appropriate instruments for the assessment of motivation, readiness, and expectations.

Task C: Obtain a detailed lifestyle and exercise history using questionnaires and interviews in order to aid in establishing a safe and effective exercise program and to promote short- and long- term adherence.

Knowledge of:

1. Methods to collect information about present and former participation in exercise and physical activities

2. Methods to assess lifestyle health habits

3. The relationship of lifestyle to health

Skill/Lab in:

Evaluating and selecting appropriate methods for the assessment of exercise history.

1. Evaluating and selecting appropriate instruments by the assessment of lifestyle

Task D: Conduct appropriate baseline measures (e.g. aerobic endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and anthropometric assessments, heart rate, blood pressure) using information obtained from the client assessment and scientifically accepted measurement standards in order to aid in establishing a safe and effective exercise program and to track changes over time.

Knowledge of:

1. Established protocols to assess cardio respiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition

2. Normal and abnormal physiological responses to cardio respiratory endurance tests and criteria for test termination

3. Established protocols for obtaining heart rate and blood pressure

4. Accepted fitness test norms and health evaluation norms

5. Test Selection Criteria

6. Mathematical formulas related to fitness assessment.

Skill/Lab in:

1. Administering exercise tests

2. Measuring resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure

3. Evaluating and selecting fitness test protocols

4. Recognizing normal and abnormal responses during the administration of the cardio respiratory endurance test.

5. Apply math as it pertains to fitness assessment

Domain III: PROGRAM DESIGN

Task A: Interpret the results of client assessment by analyzing data and responses in order to aid the design of a safe and effective program


Knowledge of:

1. Standardized norms for blood pressure, heart rate, cardio respiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, anthropometrics, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE)

2. Health risk factors and ACSM risk stratification

3. Chronic and acute conditions (e.g. orthopedic concerns, disease, disability)

4. Concerns & Testing and Evaluation & Principles of Adherence and Motivation

Skill/Lab in:

1. Researching medications, their classifications, and potential effects

Task B: Establish client-specific goals and objective measure using assessment results and current standards in order to provide program direction and optimize program adherence.

Knowledge of:

1. Applied behavioral and exercise science (e.g. goal setting theory, metabolism, cardio respiratory response)

2. Safe and effective rate of change in physical fitness and body weight.

3. Current standards and guidelines (e.g. ACSM, AHA)

4. Client’s exercise history and its effect on current goals

Skill/Lab in:

1. Setting appropriate goals and timeframes

2. Using assessment and evaluation results for goal setting and reinforcement

Task C: Determine appropriate parameters (e.g. frequency, intensity, duration and type) for cardio respiratory, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility exercises and other physical activities using current standards and practices in order to develop a safe and effective exercise program

Knowledge of:

1. Cardio respiratory, musculoskeletal, and basic neuromuscular anatomy (Human Anatomy

2. Basic exercise science (e.g. cardio respiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular exercise physiology, applied kinesiology, and biomechanics) American Dietetic Association (ADA) (Exercise Physiology) Diabetes Association (ADA) (AHA)

3. Basic Principles of psychology with respect to exercise motivation, adherence, and behavior modification.

4. Energy systems (e.g. aerobic, anaerobic and the relationship of these to training techniques)

5. The integration of the components of fitness (cardio respiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility) into a comprehensive physical activity program.

6. principles of body weight regulation and body composition as they relate to exercise selection (Principles of Adherence and Motivation)

7. Motor learning as it applies to skill concepts acquisition (e.g. stages of learning, feedback, demonstration, mental practice)

8. Physical activity programming gland potential adaptations for populations with special need that have been cleared by their physician to take part in a program of a regular physical activity (e.g. aging, obesity, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, orthopedic disorders, pregnancy, youth, athletes diabetes, and osteoporosis (Principles of Adherence and Motivation)

9. Environmental conditions (e.g. heat, cold, altitude, air quality, humidity) and their impact on exercise parameters (muscular strength, endurance)

10. The characteristics and application of isometric, isotonic, and is kinetic exercise (strength training program design)

11. Modification of an exercise program with respect to a client’s injury history and injury risk. (Principles of Adherence and Motivation)

12. Applicable standards, guidelines, and position statements published by accepted organization (e.g. ACSM, endurance, muscular strength and ACOg, Nation Heart, Lung, Blood Institute (NHLBI), American Dietetic Association (ADA), American Diabetes Association (ADA), and American Heart Association (AHA) to use in the formulation of recommendations. Health Screening; Testing and Evaluation and Principles of Adherence and Motivation

13. Effectiveness and integration of complementary physical activity

14. Safety considerations as they apply to program design. (Muscular strength and endurance and strength training program design)

15. Techniques of cardio respiratory conditioning (e.g. interval, fartlek, endurance) (muscular strength and endurance)

16. Principles of muscular strength and endurance (e.g. sets and reps, load, order, rest period) (Strength Training Program Design)

17. Muscular training techniques and concepts (e.g. strength, power, hypertrophy, periodization, plyometrics, endurance) (strength training program design and flexibility)

18. Principles and techniques for flexibility (e.g. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, active- isolated, dynamic, static) programming for the healthy adult

19. Establishing cardio respiratory parameters (e.g. frequency, intensity, duration, type, and progression) (muscular strength and endurance)

20. Methods for establishing intensity for cardio respiratory conditioning (e.g. frequency, intensity, duration, type and progression) (muscular strength and endurance)

21. Energy cost of exercise (e.g. calorie cost) (muscular strength and endurance)

Skill/Lab in:

1. Calculating target heart-rate zone (THRZ) using heart-rate reserve (HRR) and age-predicted formulas. (Muscular Strength and Endurance)

2. Explaining and applying RPE scale. (Muscular Strength and Endurance)

3. Selecting. Integrating. And modifying methods for cardio respiratory endurance. Muscular strength and endurance; Strength Training Program Design; Flexibility & Programming for the Healthy Adult)

4. Designing a safe, well-balanced comprehensive physical activity program specific to the client’s status, special needs, desires, and goals. (Special Populations and Health Concerns)

5. Determining energy cost of exercise for different populations. (Muscular Strength and Endurance)

6. Determining intensity for cardio respiratory conditioning and appropriate workload for resistance exercise.

7. (Muscular Strength and Endurance; Muscular Strength and Endurance; Strength Training Program Design & Flexibility)

Task D: Address health-risk factors through education, follow up, and referral to qualified resources, as appropriate (e.g., smoking cessation, stress management, weight loss), based on assessment results and goal in order to develop a comprehensive approach and optimize the program.

Knowledge of:

1. Qualified health/medical professionals to use as appropriate referral sources (e.g., physicians, mental health professionals, registered dietitians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, clinical exercise physiologists). (Health Screening; Testing and Evaluation; Principles of Adherence and Motivation & Legal Guidelines and Professional Responsibilities)

2. Methods and appropriate time frames for follow-up (e.g., interview, phone call, questioning). (Musculoskeletal Injuries)

Skill in:

1. Selecting and integrating appropriate educational resources for use in client inst ruction. (Musculoskeletal Injuries)

DOMAIN IV: PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION AND ADJUSTMENT

Knowledge of:

1. Exercise equipment operation (e.g. set-up, use, maintenance, and safety)

2. exercise concepts, principles, and techniques related to muscular strength and endurance training, cardio respiratory training, and flexibility training (e.g. overload, specificity, reversibility, progression frequency training effect) (muscular strength and endurance; strength training program design; flexibility; programming for the healthy adult

3. proper spotting technique for various activities and equipment (e.g. free weights, selectorized resistance machines, calisthenics) (biomechanics and applied kinesiology; strength training program design and flexibility

4. basic instruction and feedback for various activities (walking, jogging) (muscular strength and endurance

5. appropriate exercise equipment selection

6. methods to adjust exercise intensity

7. exercise progression and modification required for various situations (e.g. plateaus, changes in intensity, compensation for injury or newly diagnosed conditions with physician approval to exercise. Muscular strength and endurance; strength training program design; flexibility and special population and health concerns)

Skill in:

1. Identify postural abnormalities and apply proper technique

2. using of a variety of exercise equipment correctly

3. demonstrating safe and effective exercise technique

4. Assessing the client’s understanding of safe and effective exercise technique.

5. individualizing programs

6. identifying unsafe and/or ineffective exercise techniques and facilitating use of proper technique

7. Applying proper spotting technique.

8. modifying intensity for cardio respiratory conditioning and appropriate workload for resistance exercise

Task B: Teach strategies that promote physical activity using a variety of methods and resources in order to attain desired results.

Knowledge of:

1. Public health recommendations on physical activity

2. how exercise prescription relates to health and fitness

Skill/lab in:

1. monitoring and increasing physical activity to improve lifestyle

2. demonstrate proficiency in developing a program utilizing limited or no equipment

Task C: Make appropriate modification by monitoring the client’s progress through ongoing assessment and evaluation in order to support achievement of program goals.

Knowledge of:

Skill in:

1. How to determine appropriate intervals for reassessment

2. use of quantitative (objective) data (e.g. frequency, intensity duration) to guide program implementation and modification

3. use of qualitative (subjective) data (e.g. mood well-being, quality of life) to guide program modification

4. How changes in health status may require modification of a program.

1. eliciting open and honest feedback from clients

2. selecting optimal methods for self monitoring

3. problem solving (musculoskeletal injuries)

4. recognizing the need for program adjustments

5. design flexibility and special populations and health concerns

Task D: Promote exercise adherence by applying the principles of motivational theory in order to maintain interest in physical activity and achievement of program goals.

Knowledge of:

1. Motivation theory as applied to exercise adoption and adherence

2. Factors that facilitate short and long-term adherence

3. How readiness and timing impact exercise adherence

4. Goal-setting theory

5. Effective problem-solving strategies

6. Methods to enhance exercise self-efficacy

7. Effective counseling and coaching strategies

8. Methods to enhance communication

Skill in:

1. Identifying the client’s readiness to change behaviors

2. Selecting and applying individual components of motivation theory to exercise adoption and adherence

3. Identifying barriers to exercise adherence

4. Generating strategies to overcome barriers to exercise

5. Teaching client’s effective problem solving strategies.

6. Examining the ongoing appropriateness of established goals and modifying as necessary.

7. Communicating appropriate messages effectively.

8. Providing encouragement, support, and reinforcement through coaching techniques.

DOMAIN V: PROFESSIONAL ROLE

Knowledge of:

1. Accepted healthcare provider CPR procedures as established by the AHA, American Red Cross (ARC), and other appropriate organizations.

2. Accepted first aid procedures as established by the AHA and ARC.

3. Emergency medical system activation

4. Accepted first aid principles (e.g. RICE) (Emergency Procedures)

5. Components of an emergency action plan and its application

6. Warning signs that signs that require intervention (e.g. shortness of breath, dizziness, and complaints of pain)

7. Scope of practice with respect to advice given to injured client

8. risk management

Topic B: Scope of Practice

Knowledge of:

1. The characteristics and/or qualities of potential (current) clients recognize as the target audience

2. the characteristics and/or qualities of potential (current) clients recognized as outside the target audience

3. the recognized scope of practice and personal bounds of competence (e.g. education, training, experience, knowledge and skill)

4. Collaboration with and contribution of other health and fitness professions to the personal training client.

Topic C: Legal Responsibilities

Knowledge of:

1. Negligence laws, both comparative and contributory, as they pertain to personal training.

2. Intellectual property laws as they apply to music, video, written materials, internet, and trademark use

3. currently accepted standards of care for personal training

4. selection and use of informed consent, waivers, and other such documents

5. Limitations of waivers and informed consent.

6. characteristics, types of coverage, and appropriate units for professional and general liability insurance

Topic D: Ethical Responsibilities

Knowledge of:

1. Code of Ethics

Topic E: Documentation

Knowledge of:

1. Laws and governmental regulations regarding reporting and confidentiality. (emergency procedures)

2. acceptable practices and procedures for acquiring, recording, and securing all client information to ensure confidentiality (emergency procedures)

Specific Course Objectives:

Lesson Topic: Anatomy &Physiology


Course Objectives: To provide students with the knowledge and skills to be able to:

1. Identify basic anatomy and physiology concepts.

2. To interrelate chemistry with anatomy and physiology

3. to identify structural components of the cell and recognize how the cell is genetically regulated

4. to relate enzymes, energy and metabolism to cell function

5. to identify the importance of membrane transport and membrane potential to cell function

6. to examine the classification, suture and function of tissues

7. to identify the structure, function and clinical considerations of the integumentray system

8. to identify the structure, function and clinical considerations of bone and describe bone development

9. to identify bones and structures comprising the axial and appendicular skeletons

10. to describe the structure, function and clinical importance of articulations

11. to identify structure, function, and clinical considerations associated with muscles

12. to identify muscles of the axial and appendicular system

13. to describe the functional organization of the nervous system

14. to identify characteristics, components and function of the central nervous system

15. to identify characteristics, components and function of the peripheral nervous system

16. to identify characteristics, components and function of the automatic nervous system

17. To identify structure, function and clinical considerations of sensory organs.

18. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the endocrine system

19. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the formed elements of the blood

20. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the heart

21. To identify physiological aspects of cardiac output and blood flow.

22. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the lymphatic systems

23. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the respiratory system

24. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the urinary system

25. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the digestive system

26. to describe metabolism of macromolecules and discuss energy regulation

27. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of the reproductive system

28. to identify structure, function and clinical considerations of developmental anatomy and inheritance

Lecture Schedule and Learning Competencies

Introduction Human Body Overview of organ systems Directional and regional terms Cavities and planes Homeostasis and negative and positive feedback systems


Life processes

Tissues and Integumentary System

Cell membranes, transport, and junctions

Structure, function and locations of epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve tissues

Microscopic identification of tissue types

Structure and function of skin (layers and accessory organs)

Skeletal System

Functions of skeletal system

Anatomy of long bone

Bone histology

Naming all bones of axial and appendicular skeleton

Formation, growth, and repair

Structural and functional classification of joints

Types of movement

Calcium homeostasis

Muscular System

Functions of muscular system Names of all major muscles Origin, insertion and action Sliding filament model Neuromuscular junction

Structure (gross and microscopic) Physiology of muscle contraction Muscle metabolism (ATP) Fiber types

Cardiovascular System

Function of circulatory system

Heart structures (systemic, pulmonary, coronary and heptic portal) Blood vessels and pressure

Digestion and Nutrition

Functions of digestive organs

Modes of mechanical digestion

Chemical digestion (hormones, enzymes, pH) Absorption and elimination

Name parts of GI Tract and accessory organs Nutrition and metabolism (production of ATP) Hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis

Respiratory System

Mechanics and regulation of breathing

Gas exchange and gas laws

Nervous System

Functions of the nervous system

Nerve cell anatomy

Neural physiology (action potential, synaptic transmission, Na/K pump) Brain anatomy and hemispheres Spinal cord anatomy, reflex arc PNS (automatic and somatic) Sensory motor nerve functions Sensory motor nerve functions Sensory organs

Endocrine System

Function of endocrine system

Naming organs/glands/cells and their hormones

Hormone types and target cells Homeostasis and feedback loops Chemical messengers

SECTION SYLLABUS

Course Objectives: To provide students with the knowledge and skills to be able to:


1. apply mechanical laws and principles of applied physics to anatomical structures

2. describes how musculoskeletal structure influence human movement

3. apply kinematics and kinetic descriptors and measure to human movements

4. Analyze the biomechanical correlates of specific skills and techniques.

5. analyze selected injury and performance mechanisms

6. Assess movements’ patterns characteristics of special populations, including individuals with disabilities, throughout the lifespan.

Lecture Schedule & Learning Competencies

Introduction and Anatomy Review

Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal mechanics Anthology and joint function Skeletal Muscle Mechanics Introduction to Kinematics Kinematics and Projectile Motion Introduction to Kinetics Forces and Lever Systems Torque Newton’s Laws of Motion Center of Gravity and Stability Moment of Inertia Momentum and Impulse

Work, Power, and Energy

Ergonomics and Applied Biomechanics

Fluid Mechanics

Biomechanics of Injury

Lesson Topic: Nutrition


Course Objectives: To provide students with the knowledge and skills to be able to:

1. Be able to assess the nutritional needs of athletes

2. Be able to describe the nutrition needs of endurance athletes

3. Be able to describe the nutritional needs of strength and power athletes

4. demonstrate knowledge of basic and applied nutrition (macronutrients and micronutrients)

5. Demonstrate knowledge of regulatory aspects of sports nutrition

6. To develop an understanding of bioenergetics laws that govern metabo lism and all energy transfer

7. To develop an understanding of the biochemical regulation of energy metabolism

8. To develop an understanding of how nutrition affects exercise performance

9. To develop an understanding of how exercise affects nutritional needs

10. To develop an understanding of macronutrient and micronutrient needs of active individuals

11. To be aware of the special nutritional needs and concerns of athletes in various sports i.e. triathletes, wrestlers, and basketball players and the factors contributing to fatigue during exercise.

Lecture Schedule & Learning Competencies

Introduction to Macronutrients Introduction to Micronutrients Carbohydrate

Lipids

Protein

Fiber

Disordered Eating and Athletes

Exercise Physiology- Thermodynamics to Metabolism

Ergogenic Aids

General Sports Nutrition

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